• Born date: 1632-11-24
  • Born in: Dutch Republic
  • Death date: 1677-02-21
  • Death in: Netherlands
Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (/bəˈruːk spɪˈnoʊzə/; born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher. The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy.

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